The world is a complicated place. Even if we limit our attention to the world’s countries—and in so doing, ignore other vital actors like non-governmental organizations, firms, political parties, and many others—we have nearly 200 entities to study. As it happens, those entities care about a lot of things: resources, policies, regimes, and so on….
Since World War II, international organizations – entities like the African Union, Arab League, Council of Europe and the Commonwealth – have suspended member states ninety-five times. While some intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) suspend states after financial, economic, or military violations, the vast majority of IGO suspensions happen in response to political backsliding – such as human rights violations, coups democratic recession, or flawed elections.